Detection of cadmium and lead via modified glassy carbon electrode: A study in reproducibility
Trace amounts of heavy metals in local water supplies is a well-known threat to not only aquatic life, but humans as well. This ever-increasing problem makes monitoring trace heavy metals of extreme importance. Previously practiced and highly accurate monitoring utilizing mercury film electrodes and hanging mercury drop electrodes are now discouraged due to the toxic nature of mercury. A new, valid method of trace heavy metal detection has now been proposed using an internal standards method paired with a bismuth modified electrode via square wave voltammetry. This research aims for process optimization through the changing of the deposition time, use of convection, and establishing a new cadmium internal standard to make an extremely reproducible procedure. This research aims to show the elimination of acetonitrile, removal of dissolved oxygen, and an overall greener, highly reproducible alternative for trace heavy metal detection of cadmium and lead with the hopes of future use for other heavy metals.