Exploring Optimal Macronutrient Composition in Nutrition Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes
According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report (2017) published by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control), it was estimated that 30.3 million people (9.4% of the total American population) have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of all cases of diabetes reported, while Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 – 95% of all cases reported. In order to see if specific macronutrient compositions in the diet are superior in Type 2 diabetes nutrition therapy, this paper analyzed six studies that focused on the effects of different macronutrient compositions in diet interventions of overweight/obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Due to the emphasis placed on glycemic control, the articles utilized in this paper follow a carbohydrate to fat or protein comparison structure. Parameters in the six selected studies included weight, A1C (%), HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin. All parameters were measured at baseline and in periods leading up to endpoint.