*WINNER* College students’ contingent self-esteem: The effects of mental stress and substance abuse on undergraduates in Tennessee.
The purpose of this study was to examine if there is a correlation between contingent self-esteem and whether there were effects on substance abuse. In addition, this research attempted to find whether or not mental stress in conjunction with contingent self-esteem has an influence on substance abuse. Methods: The research was conducted using Qualtrics, and there were 189 undergraduate participants. Results: The findings showed there was not a significant relationship between contingent self-esteem and mental stress on substance abuse. However, the results indicated that males abuse substances more often than females. Further discussions, limitations, and implications for counseling are provided.